Phos Choline provides phospholipids that help to support liver function. Phosphatidyl-choline (PC) is the primary phospholipid (also known as phosphatide) found in lecithin.1
It is an important component of cell membranes and is highly concentrated in hepatocytes. 2,3 All lipoproteins are rich in PC, and are primarily produced in the liver.3
Normal PC levels may help to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation as PC is necessary for the production and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides from the liver. 2,3 PC deficiencies may lead to VLDL and triglyceride buildup in the liver, which negatively affects liver function and health.3
Recent in vitro studies show that hepatocytes also overproduce free radicals when grown in choline deficient medium; excess reactive oxygen species production can lead to DNA damage and impair liver function.4 In a randomized, double blind trial, 57 healthy adults were fed diets low in choline. After six weeks of depletion, fatty liver, liver damage and/or muscle damage was observed among 68% of participants.5 When choline was replenished in the diet, the organ dysfunction was resolved in all participants within six weeks.5
1. Patterson KY, Bhagwat SA, Williams JR, Howe JC, Holden JM. January 2008 (http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/80400525/Data/Choline/Choln02.pdf).
2. Duric, M, Sivanesan, S, Bakovic, M. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2012; 114: 389-398.
3. Cole, LK, Vance, JE, Vance, DE. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2012; 1821: 754-761.
4. Zeisel, SH. Mutation Research. 2012; 733: 34- 38.
5. Fischer, LM, daCosta, KA, Kwock, L, Stewart, PW, Lu, TS, Stabler, SP, Allen, RH, Zeisel, SH. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 1275-85.